How to clean water from impurities and substances dissolved in it
Our careless attitude to the composition of drinking water makes the internal organs to be the only barrier that protects against serious diseases. But the human body is able to cope not with all the harmful substances that can be found in the water. Like any "equipment" that is subjected to heavy loads, this natural filter will sooner or later fail.
To the natural causes of water pollution are added the consequences of active agricultural and industrial activities. And even the treated fluid supplied by the city services is far from flawless in terms of performance. As a result of wear and tear of equipment, the use of old technologies, violations committed during processing, it is dangerous to drink tap water. It remains to independently take care of its quality - that is, to clean at home with special filters or without.
Preparation and precautions
Improperly performed cleansing procedures can degrade water quality. You can avoid such situations by following a few rules.
It is necessary to take into account the side effects of the selected methods and not to neglect the measures that neutralize their action. Cleaning technique should be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions.
If special equipment is used to normalize quality, before installing it, you should be familiar with the features of operation - the requirements for care, replacement of replacement parts, and the specifics of the operating mode.
Types of water pollutants
Water can contain up to 4,000 variants of impurities, detrimental to quality. Among the most common types of water pollution include the following types.
Represent a suspension of large, insoluble particles of rust, sand, silt, clay. In tap water, rust can most often be found due to old water pipes.Such water is unsuitable for food and clogs pipelines and faucets, leading to breakdowns of plumbing equipment.
Chlorine and its compounds
Chlorine is added to tap water as a disinfectant. This substance can increase the allergic reaction, can cause irritation of the mucous membranes and skin, has a negative effect on metabolism, the immune system, intestinal microflora. It can provoke inflammation of the kidneys and cancer.
Calcium and magnesium salts
The high salt content makes the water "hard". The consumption of such a liquid increases the risk of kidney stones, and a large amount of magnesium adversely affects the nervous system. Hard water is not the best way affects the condition of the hair and skin.
For one liter of water, the iron content is 0.1-0.3 mg. Exceeding this indicator makes water toxic. The nervous, immune, reproductive and digestive systems suffer. The liver, kidneys and pancreas are affected. The processes of blood formation and metabolism worsen, allergic reactions may occur. Disrupted the process of withdrawal of toxins.
Manganese content in drinking water should be less than 0.1. Manganese can cause nerve disorders, diseases of the hematopoietic and bone systems. A high concentration of the substance reduces intellectual abilities, and in pregnant women can cause abnormalities in the mental development of the fetus.
Lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, nickel, mercury are toxic metals. They can provoke diseases of the bone marrow, atherosclerosis, hypertension. Lead is most likely to be found in tap water.Gaskets made from this metal are used in old pipelines due to their durability.
Under this name, we understand a number of substances - nitrates, pesticides, herbicides, nitrites, which lead to a lack of oxygen in the tissues of the body. Fall into the water as a result of agricultural activities.
Water can contain both bacteria and viruses. They cause intestinal disorders, stomach ailments, the occurrence of hepatitis, polio and other diseases.
Table: Ways to combat water pollutionPollutantFolk method of purificationFilters to remove contamination
|Calcium and magnesium salts||
Folk cleaning methods without filters
The need to clean and disinfect water, people have long recognized. To date, the human experience has gained a lot of effective methods of cleaning at home.
High temperature kills microorganisms, and calcium and magnesium salts in the solid sediment, which can be drained. In the process of boiling, volatile substances, such as chlorine, go away.
- Bring water to a boil.
- Boil for 15 to 25 minutes with the lid open.
- Then let it stand.
- Drain, without touching the bottom layer with sediment.
Cleaning is performed by displacing impurities from water that crystallizes under the influence of low temperature. However, after a certain concentration of impurities is reached in unfrozen water, they will be incorporated into the structure of the ice lattice in the form of capsules. Therefore, it is important not to miss the moment when it is possible to separate clean water.
- Place the pot of water in the freezer.
- Leave for a few hours.
- When half of the volume is frozen, drain the liquid residue.
- Melt the remaining ice - this water can be used.
The method allows to remove chlorine and some other volatile substances (for example, ammonia) due to evaporation, and also partially weed out salts that will fall to the bottom in the form of a solid precipitate.
- Pour water into a ceramic or glass container.
- Leave for 8 hours.
- During the first 2 hours, stir with a spoon: during this time chlorine will evaporate, stirring will speed up the process.
- Then do not touch the water for 6 hours. This time is required for the sedimentation of other impurities, so you can not mix.
- Water, trying not to shake up, pour into another dish, leaving about a quarter of the liquid at the bottom.
- Freeze or boil.
Coal has the ability to absorb organic compounds and gases dissolved in water, in particular chlorine. There is a special coal for cleaning, but you can use pharmacy activated carbon tablets.
- Wrap coal tablets at the rate of 4 pieces per liter in gauze.
- Put on the bottom of the dish and pour water.
- Leave on for 6-8 hours.
- Water strain and boil.
Silver and copper
Copper and silver destroy harmful microflora in water. Silver does not allow bacteria to develop later (water treated with this metal can be stored for several months), but it can be eaten in food.
- For cleaning with silver, you can put a silver spoon in a bowl overnight.
- To clean with copper, it is enough to hold water for 4 hours in a copper bowl (but no more, in order to avoid metal poisoning).
Shungite not only clears chlorine, nitrates, microorganisms, manganese and iron, but also fills with useful trace elements. One stone can be used for about six months, you only need to clear it from plaque.
Instructions: take 100 grams of shungite per 1 liter of water, put for 3 days, then drain the upper layer without affecting the bottom.
Silicon disinfects, precipitates iron, mercury and phosphorus compounds and neutralizes chlorine.
Black silicon is used, the life of which is unlimited (must be cleaned of plaque after each use).
- Wash the silicon and put it on the bottom of a glass container with water (3 liters - 50 grams).
- Stand for 3 to 7 days in a dark place.
- Carefully, without stirring, drain the water, leaving 5 centimeters of the lower layer.
There are several other ways known to folk practice:
- Quartz.It is made the same way as cleansing with shungite and silicon: water with quartz stones (200 g per 3 liters) must be infused for 3 days. Can be mixed with silicon. This mineral is able to purify from heavy metals, chlorine, iron, manganese, aluminum, nitrates and pathogenic microorganisms.
- Kitchen salt.A tablespoon of salt, diluted in two liters of water and infused for half an hour, cleans from bacteria and heavy metal compounds. But this method can not be applied continuously.
- Vegetable cleaners.Ripe rowan berries, juniper sprigs, bird cherry leaves, willow bark and onion peel have a bactericidal effect. To do this, any of the listed ingredients, pre-washed, put in water for 12 hours (except rowan - it is enough for her three).
- Wine.You can purify water from harmful microflora by mixing 2 parts of it with 1 part of wine and holding it for 15 minutes.
- Medications.For the same purpose, iodine (3 drops per 1 liter), vinegar (1 teaspoon) and potassium permanganate (light pink solution) are used. After adding iodine and vinegar, water can be consumed after 2 hours.
Disadvantages of folk methodsCleaning methodIneffectiveSide effects
|Freezing||-||From the water, useful salts are also eliminated.|
|Silver and copper cleansing||Does not eliminate inorganic impurities.||Silver and copper - toxic metals, the method requires special care.|
Special equipment for water purification
Technical progress has contributed to the development of methods for high-quality water treatment. At the moment, used equipment for cleansing involves:
- Filters of different types;
- Chemical effects on water;
- Physico-chemical processes;
- Physical processes;
- Biological mechanisms.
The method of purification is determined by the type of impurities that must be removed.
- Mechanical filters.Used to remove large particles of water, such as rust, sand, silt, etc., from water. The filtering device is a liquid-permeable barrier that retains undissolved impurity particles. This is a system of several obstacles - from coarse filtering grids for coarse debris to fine-cleaning cartridges for particles no larger than 5 microns. Water is purified in several stages, due to this, the load on the cartridges is reduced.
- Sorption filters.Can be used with mechanical filters.Remove impurities due to absorbents, effective for chlorine and organic compounds. The role of the absorbent material is played by coconut coal (from the shell), its effectiveness is 4 times higher than that of charcoal.
- Ozone cleaners (chemical cleaning).Designed to purify water from impurities of metals and microorganisms (dispute resistant to chlorine). For work, the ozone property is used to emit oxygen when decomposed in water, which oxidizes metallic impurities. Then they settle and can be removed.
Devices physico-chemical mode of action
- Electrochemical aeration.Used to remove dissolved impurities that can be oxidized - iron, manganese, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, heavy metal salts. First of all, they are used to cleanse iron from impurities - these filters are effective even at high concentrations, up to 30 mg per liter. Impurities are oxidized due to the appearance of free oxygen ions in water, the concentration of which increases when an electric current is passed through water. Oxidized substances settle on the filter.
- Aerial aeration.They are used for the same purpose, but in this case water is saturated with oxygen in another way - they are injected under pressure.
- Ion exchange filters.Used to purify water containing metal impurities - iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, as well as nitrates. Water is passed through a mass of synthetic resin containing substances that attach metal ions to themselves, removing them from the liquid. There are devices that combine the functions of sorption and ion exchange filters. In devices of this type, the absorption mass consists of a mixture of granules of an ion-substituting resin and a carbon absorbent.
Equipment using physical processes
- Reverse osmosis.Almost all dissolved impurities - iron, magnesium and calcium salts, heavy metals, as well as nitrates and microorganisms are retained. The role of the barrier is performed by a membrane with micro-holes through which fluid is forced under pressure. These openings are so small that only water and oxygen molecules can pass through them. The removed impurities are removed from the membranes.
- UV filters.Disinfects water when irradiated with ultraviolet rays.
- Installations for biological filtration.It reduces the concentration of iron, hydrogen sulfide and acid in water, due to the ability of some bacteria to absorb these substances.The filter assumes the subsequent disinfection by ultraviolet and removal of the products of vital activity of microorganisms with the help of the sorption system.
Tips & Warnings
- To give the water a pleasant taste, it is worth using freezing and cleansing with activated charcoal and silicon.
- The use of coal, like shungite, allows you to remove unpleasant odors.
- To saturate the water deprived of useful microelements (melt, purified by reverse osmosis), you need to add 100 ml of mineral water to 1 liter of purified water.
- The safety of the water will provide shungite and silver.
Weak points of cleaning devices
- Reverse osmosis plants show the best result for the removal of foreign impurities, but because of the specific nature of the purification process, membrane filters relieve not only of hazardous compounds, but also of beneficial trace elements. Constant consumption of water purified by this method can lead to deficiency of necessary substances in the body, therefore, together with such filters, it is necessary to use mineralization units.
- When using the device for ozonation, you need to remember that purified water is not stored for a long time.Ozone quickly destroys microorganisms, but does not have a duration of action. When ozonizing, organic compounds are destroyed, which creates a favorable environment for bacteria.
- Exposure to ultraviolet light destroys the bacterial environment in water, but does not purify it from impurities of salts, metals, nitrates. It is advisable to combine UV filters with ozonating devices.
- Sorption filters, accumulating organic matter, create an environment for intensive reproduction of bacteria. Therefore, they require an additional disinfection system.
- Ion-exchange filters are applicable for the purification of water, the concentration of iron in which is not more than 5 milligrams per liter. If the iron content is higher, it will not provide a sufficient level of purification.
- During the operation of the ion-exchange filter, large particles of oxidized iron will eventually clog up the resin. A film forms on its surface, which is a breeding ground for bacteria. It is necessary to regularly wash the resin with a solution of table salt.
Service life of replacement parts
- The life of the resin for ion-exchange filter is 2-3 years.
- The membrane for reverse osmosis filters becomes unusable after 18-36 months of use.
- The carbon filter is designed for 6-9 months.
Applied cleaning methods can neutralize the most harmful impurities. By choosing the best method, taking into account the nature of pollution, ergonomics and efficiency of the technology, you can provide your home with a source of living, healthy water and keep yourself healthy.