Reverse osmosis - crystal clear!
The desire of people to get the purest water led to the creation of a system that purifies water at the molecular level. Initially, scientists developed a plant for the desalination of sea water. But the system turned out to be extremely relevant in everyday life, as the quality of water deteriorates every year.
Components of the system
The system is a comprehensive multi-stage filtration device. Available from 4 to 7 stages. The last 2 stages are aimed exclusively at improving the beneficial properties of water: mineralization and structurization.
Reverse osmosis filter consists of:
- Sedimentary (mechanical) filter performing coarse cleaning.
- Carbon filters, which carry out preliminary and final chemical, mechanical cleaning of small particles.
- Reverse osmosis membrane layer having cells with a diameter of 0.0001 microns and performing the most fine cleaning.
- Mineralization cartridge, saturating water with potassium, sodium, magnesium.
- Bioceramic cartridge, restoring the natural structure.
- Pump (if necessary).
- Tank for accumulation of clean water, volume 4-12 liters.
The leading manufacturers of reverse osmosis systems are: Atoll, BlueFilters, Aqualine, Organic, Ecosoft, Aquaphor, etc.
Features of the reverse osmosis membrane
The membrane for reverse osmosis is a polymer semipermeable film. Water passes through it under pressure, the minimum value of which should be 2.8 atm, otherwise all incoming water will be drained into the drainage, and not filtered. If the pressure is less, the pump is installed. In normal working condition, the drainage volume is 2/3 of the incoming water.
Reverse osmosis filter elements are manufactured and labeled for their intended purpose:
- TW - membrane, which is used to obtain pure water from the tap (Tap Water);
- BW - film for filtering brackish water with not too high salt concentration (Brackish Water);
- SW - membrane for getting fresh water from sea solution (Sea Water);
- NF - used to refer to nanofiltration.
In addition, membrane permeability also varies. If the pressure in the system is low, then it is better to purchase membranes labeled XLE, LE. High performance is characterized by the abbreviation HP, suitable operating pressure of 4-5 atm.High selective properties of membranes with the designation HR, FF. Produces the purest water with an FR membrane.
Installation requires maintenance. In order for the membrane to effectively filter water for a long time (2 years), it is necessary to preserve it and prevent large particles from entering it. Those. it is necessary to adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations to replace the cleaning cartridges in a timely manner (after about 6 months).