What is archeology?
Archeology studies the historical past of all mankind. This is helped by the so-called material sources. These include buildings and various objects created by man and preserved to this day: weapons, dishes and decorations, works of art. They carry certain information about the history of mankind.
What is archeology? Most often, the concept of "archeology" is revealed when studying the history of mankind with the help of various material sources or evidence.
All these sources and evidence are studied by archeologists. They carry out excavations, study the objects found and restore the history of them, find out how people lived in the past.
Let us summarize what archeology is and what is its significance for modern science and society. Of great importance are archaeological finds for the compilation of a historical description of the life of society in those times when there was no written language yet.
A bit of history
Consider where archeology originates from.The first mention of the term "archeology" dates back to 4th century BC. The great philosopher Plato spoke of the existence of the science of antiquity. But over time, this term has acquired a different meaning in different countries. A nationwide modern understanding of what this science is studying has developed around the 19th century.
So, ancient archeology originates from the time of the reign of Nabonid in Babylon. In ancient times, the purpose of research was mainly the search for the inscriptions of the pharaohs and emperors. The era of the Middle Ages suspended the development of this science. But archaeological excavations were resumed as early as the 16th century in Italy. The scientific purpose of the excavation acquired only in the 18th century. Figures of the French Revolution began to show an active interest in objects of antiquity.
The works of the archaeologist from Sweden, O. Montelius include the distribution of the objects found by certain types. Types he concluded in the ranks. Thus, it is possible to trace the evolutionary changes of humanity.
The archeology of Russia is closely connected with the name of A. N. Radishchev. He supported the theory of the existence of three centuries (stone, bronze and iron) in the history of human development. Also a great contribution to the development of this science was made by such archaeologists as E. Lart, J.Lebbok, K. Thomsen, E. Drinks.
The Institute of Archeology, which is one of the leading institutions for research in this field of knowledge, has taken its place in the modern system of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Typology of material sources
Mostly found objects that are of scientific value to an archaeologist are divided into several groups. The first are artifacts. These are various decorations, tools, clothing, earthenware, and even industrial waste.
The second category includes buildings or structures made by people, tombs, tunnels, as well as the most common storage pits. A separate group consists of biological residues: pollen and grains of plants (they are called ecofacts), snail shells, and wood.
The latter category includes soil and pebble sediments that accumulate on the square of the monument. They help determine the nature of their origin. Samples of such deposits must be taken for laboratory research.